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生物炭让土壤不再贫瘠
来源:中国科学报      作者:张章      时间:2015-02-01 22:11      关键词:科学家为农业和城市绿化开辟新途径
摘要:就大范围而言,只有当生物燃料制品有用武之地时,生物炭产品才具有经济意义。

 

生物炭或有助于促进作物生长。图片来源:Getty

150多年来,美国布鲁克林造船厂建造的船舶帮助停止了与非洲的奴隶交易、铺设了首条海底电缆和推动了第二次世界大战的结束。现在,这个位于纽约城的工厂充满了艺术家、建筑师、手工艺品制造者和有机蔬菜种植者。在一个小雨绵绵的秋日,Ben Flanner在一个6000平方米的屋顶农场,管理着一片红色和绿色的生菜海。

这些植物下方的土壤看上去很普通,Flanner抓起一小把,仔细审视。棕色土块中间有小小的黑色颗粒,这是两年前混入土壤的木炭碎片的残留物。Flanner认为,这些富含碳的物质——生物炭,有助于作物茁壮成长,甚至可能增加产量,他希望在未来几年能得到傲人的成绩。

在过去几年,整个美国出售这种持久土壤添加物的人越来越多,一些估算数据显示,自2008年以来,年销售额增至3倍。为Flanner的农场提供原料的一家宾夕法尼亚州生物炭公司既批发销售,也面向个人消费者,销售点也包括亚马逊和全食超市。实际上,瑞典和中国等许多国家在农业和城市绿化领域也在广泛使用生物炭。

支持者认识到了这种土壤增强因子的巨大潜力,生物炭是在低氧环境中加热生物材料(外皮等农业废弃物)制备而成,可以作为生物燃料的副产品进行制造,因此许多公司希望同时发展这两种产品,以迎合更加绿色的能源形式的需求。

而且,科学家也开始对生物炭感兴趣,他们迅速展开实验测试其潜力。他们尤其感兴趣的是生物炭颗粒的化学和物理特性如何影响水流过土壤,移除污染物、改变微生物群落和减少温室气体排放。他们希望生物炭能帮助全世界的农民,尤其是那些生活在非洲和其他发展中国家的人,克服贫瘠土壤带来的难题。

纽约州康奈尔大学农业和土壤科学家Johannes Lehmann表示,不同类型的生物炭“有着独一无二的潜能,可以减缓影响作物产量的土壤健康最大限制条件,例如高度风化和沙质土壤”。

但生物炭仍然存在许多问题。在许多研究中,这种物质实际上会减少产量。另外,部分困难集中在生物炭能以不同的温度和速度利用所有生物质制成,因此,在整个过程中,会产生各种变量和结果。

古老源头

尽管直到目前才吸引了农民的注意,但生物炭有着古老的渊源。数十万年前,亚马逊流域的居民就已经通过加热有机物制造肥沃的土壤——亚马逊黑土。但当欧洲国家开始入侵南美洲时,这种实践活动开始被遗弃,而且其他地区很少有农民常规使用生物炭。

大约10年前,科学家首先对这种物质产生浓厚的兴趣,随着对全球变暖担忧的加剧,作为将大量碳封存到地下的一种方法,一些人开始兜售生物炭。但随着这种用途的淡出,土壤学家现在开始探索将生物炭用于农业和消除污染。

其中一个特殊关注点是,生物炭如何影响水在土壤中的流动。科罗拉多大学生物地球化学家Rebecca Barnes及其同事将生物炭添加到不同物质中,测试了产生的结果。在沙子中,水能够非常快速地排出,生物炭能平均减缓水分流动92%。在保水功能好的富含黏土的土壤里,生物炭能加速水分流动超过300%。研究人员表示,生物炭会改变水在孔隙空间(土壤颗粒间的空隙)内的运动。

“黏土更多为扁平的颗粒,而沙土颗粒更加圆滑,但生物炭是没有定型的,因此,不止在生物炭内会产生奇妙的路径,在孔隙空间中也会产生特殊通路。”Barnes说。她和同事指出,这些复杂的通路会帮助降低沙土的排水能力,并提高水流过黏土的速度。

Barnes表示,这非常有意义,因为即便黏土能够保留大量水分,这些水分也很难通过土壤颗粒到达植物根系。许多研究显示,与普通土壤和添加了混合肥料的土壤相比,植物在添加了生物炭的土壤中生长地更好。

研究人员还梳理了生物炭如何影响土壤中的微生物活性。例如,细菌通常能形成一个群落,许多病原菌只有当有足够数量克服宿主的免疫反应时,才会攻击植物根系。得克萨斯州莱斯大学地球生物化学家Caroline Masiello及其合作者发现,生物炭能通过捆绑信号分子抑制这种情况。

“它们会认为自己是孤立的,因为我们把‘电话线’切断了。”Masiello说。她表示,进一步研究有可能调整生物炭的这种功能,以降低植物感染。

污染“斗士”

生物炭可能开始于农业领域,但研究人员目前正在寻找其他应用。生物炭能够束缚土壤中的重金属,以避免它们进入植物和水源。这也引起了美国环境保护局等机构的关注。在科罗拉多州阿斯彭附近的希望矿山,人们在2010年向土壤中添加了生物炭,以中和数十年来矿渣产生的影响,并增加斜坡的保水量,从而减少污水溢流的数量。阿斯彭环境中心研究显示,它还有助于促进贫瘠山坡上的作物生长。

生物炭还在清理污水方面显示出希望,或许可以充当活性炭的廉价替代品,后者通常被用于污水处理厂和被有毒化学物质污染的地区。密西西比州立大学退休化学家Charles Pittman表示,生物炭有相对较大的表面积,在水中甚至能延展更多,这就为污染物束缚提供了更多空间。他提到,那些缺乏全面水处理系统的国家或尤其能从这种污染修复方法中获益。它还有助于帮助移除传统水处理系统难以消除的抗生素和化学废物。

科学家甚至开发利用生物炭用于处理石油和天然气钻井液体以及作为印刷增色剂和油漆产品成分的潜能。“还有其他的市场没有完全被开发出来。”农业部农业研究所土壤学家Kurt Spokas说。

但专家警告称,目前尚不清楚这种处理技术是否经济,在农业领域尤为如此。土壤贫瘠和贫困通常相伴而生。在展示了肯尼亚作物增产后,加州大学伯克利分校的Andrew Crane-Droesch考察了生物炭在相同社区的经济可行性。“开出大致价格后,我们发现几乎没有人愿意购买生物炭。”他说。

生物炭的价格变化范围十分广泛,但在美国,一些产品售价每千克3美元,能与某些肥料相媲美,并高过许多混合肥料的价格。就大范围而言,只有当生物燃料制品有用武之地时,生物炭产品才具有经济意义。

但如果需求不断上涨,人们可能会质疑生物炭生产带来的环境影响。一个重要关注点是原料的选择。中国倾向于使用农业废弃物,而美国一些研究人员甚至力推动物杂肥,但这些都不是大规模生产生物炭的最有效方法。而且使用木材将刺激森林砍伐和妨碍土地使用。“有一个非常重要的问题:原料的可持续性是什么?”英国牛津大学印度可持续发展中心研究主任Alfred Gathorne-Hardy说。

迅速发展的行业

该讨论可能会随着消费者的兴趣增长,这在世界各地正缓慢地发生。负责瑞典斯德哥尔摩林木规划和保护的Bj?觟rn Embrén表示,自2009年以来,这座城市一直在使用生物炭推动当地植被的生长,他相信这促进了该市最健康树木的生长。去年9月,纽约彭博慈善基金会奖励斯德哥尔摩100万欧元启动一项城市项目,将住宅花园废弃物,甚至食物残渣和下水道污物转化为生物炭。

回到布鲁克林区,Flanner继续照顾着自己的作物。莴苣和胡萝卜在雨中站立着,他穿着黄色雨衣小心地走在田间。他认为,在长时间内,生物炭将对土壤有好处,因为它们有助于保持营养盐和水分。“这些都非常重要,尤其是在绿色屋顶这样排水良好的土壤中。这些通常很快就会失去。”他说。

但在将更多这种黑色颗粒添加到他的农场中之前,他还需要在未来几年观察作物对其的反应情况。就像研究生物炭的科学家一样,他渴望了解这种物质将实现光明的许诺,还是像其他许多可能的材料那样最终黯然失色

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