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美国2018财年预算出台
来源:中国科学报      作者:赵熙熙      时间:2017-03-20 20:19      关键词:财年预算,经费削减
摘要:美国总统唐纳德·特朗普于3月16日推出了他的第一个年度预算。这是将于今年10月1日开始的2018财政年度的预算案。它要求大幅削减该国科研机构的财政预算,进而很可能招致来自科学界和立法者的强烈反对。

在特朗普的预算案中,由NOAA资助的气候卫星项目依然将得到支持。图片来源:NOAA


本报讯 美国总统唐纳德·特朗普于3月16日推出了他的第一个年度预算。这是将于今年10月1日开始的2018财政年度的预算案。它要求大幅削减该国科研机构的财政预算,进而很可能招致来自科学界和立法者的强烈反对。

在特朗普的这份年度预算中,最终的赢家绝对不属于科学。例如,2018年财政预算打算以两位数的规模削减该国环境保护署(EPA)和国立卫生研究院(NIH)的经费。这无疑为美国重点研究领域的广泛变化奠定了基础,其中包括放弃乃至退出环境和气候项目。

EPA预算从约83亿美元降至57亿美元,降幅高达31%,是预算萎缩最多的联邦机构。预算案还提议削减EPA的3200个工作岗位,约占该机构现有工作岗位的20%。

为避免“不恰当地加重美国经济的负担”,由EPA执行的《清洁电力计划》、国际气候变化项目及气候变化研究与合作项目等将不再获得资金支持,其中《清洁电力计划》由前总统巴拉克·奥巴马于2015年推出,旨在削减美国发电厂的温室气体排放。

与此同时,美国国务院将停止资助《全球气候变化倡议》项目,同时履行特朗普在竞选期间作出的承诺,即停止资助绿色气候基金等联合国气候变化项目。

在这份预算案中,EPA也将停止资助五大湖、切萨皮克湾等区域性环境清理项目,以及消费产品与建筑节能认证项目“能源之星”等。

除环境问题外,NIH也是一大输家,其预算比2017财年降低18%至259亿美元。

特朗普预算案说,将对NIH进行“重大改组”,以便资源集中到“最高优先级的研究”,但没有给出具体细节,只是提到将关闭NIH下属参与全球卫生工作的福格蒂国际中心,并合并一些设施。

在这份预算中,航天项目基本未受影响。美国宇航局(NASA)2018财年预算总额为191亿美元,比2017年下降0.8%,但这已经是预算萎缩最小的联邦机构。

预算案强调,NASA的精力将“集中在深空探索而非以地球为中心的研究上”,并提议拨款37亿美元继续推进“猎户座”飞船、大推力火箭“太空发射系统”及相关地面系统的开发,将来利用它们运载美国宇航员执行深空任务。

但是,奥巴马政府时期提议的木卫二着陆器项目将不会再受到资助。预算案还提议砍掉广受关注的“小行星重定向任务”。“小行星重定向任务”提出利用无人探测器从一颗小行星表面采集一块巨石,然后将其挪至月球附近,最终派遣宇航员登陆进行探索。此前,NASA估计该任务费用为14亿美元,并认为对美国载人登陆火星任务具有重要意义。

此外,NASA的地球项目成为重点削减目标,包括结束大气观测卫星等4个地球科学任务以及削减对地球科学研究项目的资助。此外,NASA的教育办公室功能被认为与其他一些机构有“重合”而将被关闭。

这份预算案没有包括美国国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)的预算总额,但已明确将停止资助该机构的一些海洋研究项目。此外,美国资助基础研究的主要政府机构——国家科学基金会(NSF)的预算情况在这份纲要中没有被提及。(赵熙熙)


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