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远古采摘助视觉演化
来源:中国科学报      作者:冯维维      时间:2017-02-21 00:00      关键词:

 

恒河猴 图片来源:Clément Bardot / Wikimedia Commons

在哺乳动物中,一些灵长类动物的眼睛拥有3个不同种类的光敏视锥细胞,而不是两个。这让人类及其近亲看到了我们所认为的标准颜色光谱。(存在红绿色盲的人当然拥有不同的色谱。)

像其名字一样,灵长类动物产生这种三色彩感觉的标准解释是它让人类的早期祖先能够更容易地看到绿色森林海洋中色彩鲜艳的成熟果实。旧世界的一种猴子——恒河猴有一种遗传独特性,为这一假设提供了便利的自然验证:一种常见的遗传变化让一些雌性拥有3种视锥细胞,而一些雌性则有两种。

用圈养恒河猴进行的实验表明,拥有三色彩感觉的雌猴比拥有两色彩感觉的雌猴能够更快地找到果子。但在野生恒河猴中验证这一观点极为复杂,因为恒河猴很难被找到,而且年龄和地位也在决定谁在什么时候吃东西中发挥了重要作用。

经过对波多黎各圣地亚哥岛80多只不同恒河猴食用30种树上的果实进行的2万多次单独观察,研究人员1月19日在美国科学促进会年会上发表了这一报告。作者非常有信心地表示,三色彩视觉感的雌猴比两色彩视觉感的雌猴在定位和吃果子时的确更快,从而极大地支持了这一观点:这种优势帮助驱动三色彩视觉在人类及人类的近亲中演化。(冯维维)


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