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19世纪颜料绘出“光之画”
来源:中国科学报      作者:唐一尘      时间:2017-01-15 18:12      关键词:

 

特纳的《战舰无畏号》(1839年)图片来源:Bridgeman Images

英国19世纪风景画家J. M. W. 特纳被誉为“光之画家”,因为他善于运用多层次的颜色与纹理表达那些洒满阳光的场景。在特纳之前,油画家很难将这样充满层次感的色彩表达在画布上,部分原因在于他们当时使用的颜料。

早期的油画颜料是油、颜料色素与树脂的混合物,需要数周才能充分干燥。而在此之前,画家无法在其上分层涂画额外的颜料。

但特纳等画家在颜料中增加了被称为“gumtion”或“调色油”的涂料基质。这是一种乙酸铅、亚麻籽油、松节油与干乳香树树脂的混合物。这种奶油色、果冻状的调合物,能够让油画颜料在几天之内变干,这样有利于画家在其上分层涂抹其他颜料。

现在,研究人员已经理解了这种混合物的作用原理:其中的铅能使氧气达到一种非常活跃的形态从而与油发生化学反应,加速颜料干燥。同时,它还能促进一种弹性有机—无机凝胶的形成——当人们画下一层颜料时,这种胶体可以固定颜料的位置。

近日,研究人员将相关论文刊登在《应用化学杂志》上。由于特纳等画家在当时已经掌握了这个有利“武器”,于是能不断叠加颜料的层次,使作品表现出前所未有的生动。(唐一尘)


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