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美国航天局今年打算忙什么
来源:新华社      作者:郭爽      时间:2017-01-04 20:36      关键词:美国航天局,登陆火星,探索深空,地球科学观测

据新华社 尽管不能确定政治因素对具体研究项目的影响,但按照美国航天局最新公布的资料,在“五花八门”的各种项目中,登陆火星、探索深空和地球科学观测等将是其今年的主要任务。

其中,美国计划于2030年前后实施的载人登陆火星任务堪称“重中之重”。为载人火星计划挑选的宇航员将于今年夏天开始执行训练任务。不过,在载人登陆火星之前,正在研制的重型运载火箭“太空发射系统”(SLS)和“猎户座”飞船是重要一环。

SLS火箭和“猎户座”飞船计划于2018年末从肯尼迪航天中心首次发射升空。SLS的首秀还计划搭载13颗立方体卫星作为次要载荷,用于深空探测研究。另外,“洞察号”火星登陆车已获准于2018年发射,“火星2020”的最后设计方案和建造也已获批准。

深空探索历来是美国航天局的核心任务。美国当选总统特朗普已表示,他执政后将为深空探索计划争取更多资金,航天局也应当将重心放在深空探索上。2016年8月,航天局批准了“小行星重定向任务”,并可能于今年批准喷气推进实验室的小行星探测器设计方案和研发合同。

詹姆斯·韦伯太空望远镜将是迄今已建成的最大太空望远镜,它耗资约87亿美元,将于今年运送到约翰逊航天中心测试,并计划于2018年10月从法属圭亚那库鲁航天中心用欧洲的阿丽亚娜5型火箭发射升空。

服役近20年的“卡西尼”土星探测器在2016年末进入最后阶段。今年4月,“卡西尼”将进入任务“大结局”阶段近距离观测土星,并最终于9月15日冲入土星大气层,结束其史诗般的旅程。

今年,科学家还将继续进行已开始的其他深空任务。比如,2016年7月“朱诺”木星探测器成功进入木星轨道,开始探测木星云层下的秘密,其发回的数据和图像足够科学家忙活好几年;美国第一个小行星采样探测器“奥西里斯-REx”去年9月发射升空,目前正在飞向小行星贝努,预计将于2020年7月飞临小行星表面,快速采集至少60克样本,并计划于2023年送回地球;2015年飞掠冥王星的美国“新视野”号探测器已调整轨道飞向新的探索目标,预计将于2019年到达柯伊伯带的天体2014MU69……

广域红外线探测望远镜2016年正式开启,将帮助研究人员解开黑暗能量和暗物质的秘密,研究宇宙进化,探索太阳系外的新世界,并寻找可能存在的宜居星球。

在近地轨道,国际空间站依然是重要的实验室。今年2月,宇航员佩吉·惠特森将成为第一个两次指挥这个轨道实验室的女性宇航员。如一切顺利,任务结束时,惠特森将成为在太空中逗留时间最长的美国宇航员。

美国航天局今年将继续与波音公司、太空探索技术公司合作,加紧完成商业载人航天运输系统的最后阶段工作。不过,原定于今年进行的首次商业载人飞船发射,目前已推迟至2018年。

在地球科学观测领域,美国航天局计划于今年向国际空间站发射两个地球观测设备。其中,从兰利研究中心发射的“平流层气溶胶和气体实验3”旨在观测地球臭氧层;从马歇尔航天飞行中心发射的“闪电成像传感器”,将测量地球上云层中、云层与地面间的闪电,帮助科学家理解闪电与天气以及相关自然现象间的关系。这两个观测工具会长期持续记录地球运行数据。

今年,宇航员还将在国际空间站安装“中子星内部成分探测器”,并将于2018年用这一探测器首次在深空演示X射线通信技术。

美国航天局的全名是“美国国家航空航天局”,航空技术是其重要的科研领域。它制定了为期10年的“新航空视野”计划,并列入本财年的预算。作为该计划的一部分,航天局已于2016年开始恢复设计、建造和试飞几款“X飞机”。“X飞机”一直是美国先进航空技术试验飞机的编号。

其中,10年来第一架“X飞机”2016年获得正式编号X-57。它装备14个螺旋桨,每个螺旋桨由内置在机翼中的独立电动机驱动,预计于2018年3月首飞。航天局还将与航空工业合作研发环保技术、测试无人机,以及提高航空系统效率等。

此外,美国航天局今年还将继续进行空间机器人生产和组装、为太阳能电力推进计划开发关键技术、推动技术转移和专利赠予,以及举办公众科普活动和科技挑战赛等。 (郭爽)


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