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科学论文罕以负面方式被引用
来源:中国科学报      作者:宗华      时间:2015-10-28 21:07      关键词:科学,论文,负面,方式,引用
摘要:是否有篇研究论文只是在批评你的工作?把它当成一种恭维吧。首次分析“反面引证”及其影响的大型研究显示,这种被正式表达的争论非常罕见,并且只有高被引研究才能吸引它。



  是否有篇研究论文只是在批评你的工作?把它当成一种恭维吧。首次分析“反面引证”及其影响的大型研究显示,这种被正式表达的争论非常罕见,并且只有高被引研究才能吸引它。

被引次数通常是作者们渴望的,但当它们成为一篇批判性评论或一项与之矛盾的研究成果一部分时,或许就没有那么受欢迎了。由美国佐治亚理工学院经济学家Alexander Oettl主导的一项研究发现,这些反面引证在文献中出现的几率很低,但不容忽视。

Oettl团队分析了来自《免疫学杂志》近1.6万篇论文的76万余条引用(提及约15万篇论文)。他们让一组免疫学家帮忙,从约1.5万个例子的上下文 中将“负面引证”手动分类出来。例如,类似于“因此,数据同……报道相反”或者“这一结论看上去同……不一致”等措辞被视为负面的。随后,研究人员基于一 种用手动分类数据集训练过的算法,利用自动化文本分析法分析了剩余数据。

他们发现,2.4%的引用是“负面的”,而在被引用的15万余篇论文中,约7.1%接受了至少一次负面引用。

往往受到批评的论文是那些整体上拥有相对较多引用次数的文章,而后者通常被视为一篇论文质量和重要性的一个指标。从文献计量学的角度来看,负面引证招致的 “惩罚”似乎只是轻微的。相较于未受到批评的类似论文,一篇吸引了负面引证的论文继续获得略微较少的引用,但这种差异只是在8年后才变得明显。此项研究成 果日前发表于美国《国家科学院院刊》。

德国开姆尼茨工业大学物理学家和文献计量学专家Michael Schreiber认为,这些数据和他从此前非正式估测中期望获得的结果一致,尽管他此前并未见到相关数据以这种方式被量化。

不过,Schreiber表示,此项研究对于负面引证的定义可能过于宽泛。它包括了一些明显的负面自我引证,比如作者讨论其此前论文在研究方法上所存局限性以强调其最新进展的情形。(宗华)


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