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来源:中国科学报      时间:2015-10-14 17:41      关键词:自然子刊综览

《自然—气候变化》:

美国垃圾总量被严重低估

2012年,美国垃圾填埋场垃圾处理的总数为2.62亿吨,而美国环保局评估的数据少了1.4亿吨。这篇在线发表于《自然—气候变化》上的一项研究同时指出,从填埋场释放的甲烷量可能也被低估。

垃圾填埋场会散发出大量甲烷,这是一种潜在的温室气体。通过捕获并燃烧甲烷实现填埋场的减排是气候变化措施中关键的一部分。

Jon Powell等人分析了从美国1200个设施中获得的运行数据和垃圾处理率的报告。他们发现,2012年处理的垃圾多达2.62亿吨,比美国环保局之前估计的多出1.4亿吨。他们还发现,在2010年到2013年间,每年的垃圾处理率平均提高了0.3%。

绝大部分垃圾被送到露天垃圾场,这里每天都有新的垃圾送来,2012年大约91%的填埋场排放来自这些露天垃圾场。研究人员注意到,封闭垃圾场的甲烷捕获率要比露天垃圾场的高出17个百分点,露天垃圾场对气候变化的影响远被低估。

该研究建议,政府必须采取措施,努力减少露天垃圾场的甲烷排放。而且,研究人员表示他们的这项研究提出了目前政府的垃圾处理数据搜集方法具有一定局限性,而这会显著影响到与减排和解决气候变化有关政策的实施。

《自然—气候变化》

融化冻土引起的气体排放

将带来巨大经济冲击

据《自然—气候变化》在线发布的一项研究称,到22世纪末,融化冻土的温室气体排放可能导致美国受到43万亿的额外经济冲击。这些额外的影响证明,急需采取措施减少融化冻土的排放。

冻土内部蕴含着1700亿吨以有机物质冷冻形式存在的碳,由于北极变暖的影响,冻土在过去数十年里开始融化。而其中所含有的二氧化碳和甲烷也随着冻土的融化逐渐释放到大气中,从而放大了人类活动所导致的气体排放的影响。而这种额外排放所导致的经济影响此前并未有专家进行过研究。

Chris Hope和Kevin Schaefer通过模型建立,将各种IPCC假设条件下的冻土气体排放对全球经济可能影响到的范围进行了评估。在A1B条件下(该条件假设到2100年大气中二氧化碳浓度达到百万分之七百,在此之前,经济快速增长,人为排放也在增加),研究人员假设2100年后的人为排放为零,那么到2200年,累积的冻土气体总排放将使得由气候变化带来的经济冲击从326万亿美元提高到369万亿美元,上升13%。这意味着,针对融化冻土的减排措施可以很快大幅减少气候变化带来的经济冲击。

(张笑/编译 更多信息请访问www.naturechina.com/st)


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