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美薪酬膨胀助力生物医学发展
来源:中国科学报      作者:张章      时间:2015-07-27 19:59      关键词:美国,薪酬,膨胀,助力,生物医学,发展
摘要:根据传统观点,美国生物医学研究成本的提高比所有消费品和服务费用的上涨速度都快。在过去30年间,国立卫生研究院(NIH)发布的相关指数证实了这种不一致性,也给了游说者更好的“武器”恳请立法者批准NIH年度预算增速高过该国的通货膨胀速率。



  薪酬上限搅乱生物医学研发价格指数。图片来源:wageningenur.nl

根据传统观点,美国生物医学研究成本的提高比所有消费品和服务费用的上涨速度都快。在过去30年间,国立卫生研究院(NIH)发布的相关指数证实了这种不一致性,也给了游说者更好的“武器”恳请立法者批准NIH年度预算增速高过该国的通货膨胀速率。

这份NIH指数涵盖了诸如试剂、实验动物和科学仪器的费用等,有时它能高过一个更大范围的指数约3个百分点。但在2012年,一件奇怪的事发生了,而且, 这件事挑战了传统观点。生物医学研发价格指数(BRDPI)低于了美国国内生产总值价格指数(GDP PI)——消费者物价指数的一个变化版本。

当时,该生物医学指数增长率为1.3%,不仅低于当年的GDP PI的1.9%的增速,也创了BRDPI的历史最低纪录。但这则消息在当时并未引起重视。

要找出该年度如此异常的原因,人们需要知道BRDPI包含哪些内容。NIH在接受《科学》杂志采访时表示,该信息并不适合公开,但根据《联邦信息自由法 案》(FOIA)它能被获得。据悉,该指数不仅涉及设备和用品的成本,还包括来自拨款的薪酬和福利。实际上,全部人力成本占到该指数年度变化的2/3。

《科学》杂志曾公开了美国密歇根大学安纳伯分校一位微生物学家近几年的科研经费支出情况。4年内,他共获得约115万美元的基金,其中约43.8%为个人 工资和福利,材料费约占 19.6%,另外1/3上缴至学校管理部门,剩下的为其他科研支出。由此可见,人力成本占了经费支出的一大部分。

而在2011年12月美国国会通过支出法案后,薪酬和福利对生物医学研究发展的巨大影响日益清晰。该法案将标准NIH拨款中研究者薪酬上限从19.97万 美元减少到17.97万美元。立法者希望这能将钱省下来资助更多项目。而科学家则抱怨NIH的300亿美元经费根本不足以帮助他们实现自己的好点子。

这部2011年法案是NIH经费周期慢性繁荣与萧条的最新案例。虽然,作为帮助美国经济从2008年世界经济危机中复苏的一系列刺激计划的一部分,一个为期两年的100亿美元的预算削减最终结束,但资金仍非常紧张。

例如,NIH的2015财年预算比2014年的299亿美元预算增加了1.5亿美元,仅提升了0.5%,使明年NIH的财政预算仍低于2012年暂押5% 前的预算。增加额未达到参议院支出委员会批准的增加6.06亿美元的目标,而且也低于白宫要求增加的2.11亿美元。而且,附加报告还要求NIH在申请者 年龄上给予更多关注,目前,首次接受NIH资助的科研人员平均年龄为42岁。

而这个限制薪酬支出的决定让BRDPI陷入混乱,也使得其低于已经很低的GDP PI。2008年,该生物医学指数达到历史顶峰4.7%,是GDP PI的2.1%的两倍还多。到2010年,这一数值略微下降,达到3%,但仍然超过了GDP PI。2012年,BRDPI急剧下降,相反GDP PI增长到1.9%。

外部观察者认为,这一下降趋势是个好消息。毕竟,如果生物医学研究膨胀放缓,那么NIH就能进一步利用其有限的经费。

但NIH领导层并不希望出现这种趋势。NIH前院外研究项目负责人Sally Rockey习惯每年就BRDPI的价值撰写博文。她将其称为“衡量NIH经费购买力的重要方式,并能为下一财年作出预测”。但在2014年3月28日发 表的博文中,Rockey只是简单地提及2012年的下降“主要是资深研究人员薪酬上限降低所致”。

另外,也没有部门备忘录显示,2012年BRDPI历史最低纪录引发任何正式反应。但相同备忘录包括了对2013年BRDPI的初步预测,结果显示它将再 次超过GDP PI。备忘录作者表示,2013年的生物医学指数虽“但仍处于历史低谷,并将至少再次超过了GDP PI”。(张章)


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